Greek Magic & Historiolas

When Daenerys of the Game of Thrones series looks for help to heal her beloved Khal Drogo she accepts the healing arts of Mirri Maz Duur, who knows “how to make the sacred smokes and ointments from leaf and root and berry.” It sounds much more compelling than current practices today of antibiotics and painkillers. Something about the supernatural is enticing, and its place does not lie solely in the imaginations of authors.

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In this line of thought, the ancient Greeks created historiolas (little stories) as explanations for ailments and disease. In fact, the earliest evidence of ancient Greek medicine reveals the belief that the causes of disease, and the operation of the remedies applied to the sick, were linked with beliefs in magic and the supernatural. Even headaches and migraines could be chalked up to supernatural causes. One specific lamellae discovered (of four), presents the most distinctive use of a historiola in ancient magical documents. In it, Antaura, the Greek demon of migraine headaches, rises up from the sea, moves like the wind, shouts like a deer and cries like an ox. She enters into people’s heads to cause intense pain. This lamella, dating from the 3rd Century CE was placed in a stone coffin, with an inscription, “Antaura, where are you taking yourself?” “Into the half-of-the-head.” “You certainly will not go into the…”  This term, “Half-of-the-head” is Greek for migraine, hemikranton. 

Of course, in this historiola, Antaura is no match for Artemis, who had dismissed her as she made her way into the victim’s head, and accompanied by fellow migraine demons, they prevent Artemis from attempting to enter. Thus, Artemis diverts Antaura into the head of a bull in the mountains. This particular amulet was likely passed down within a family of sufferers, as it is much older than the coffin in which it is found.

*The image above is a Greek magical gemstone from the Black Sea. It dates from the Roman imperial period and thought to be found among the ruins of ancient Gorgippia. Even though it is not the specific lamella discussed above, it’s a good example.

Much of the information is from Daniel Ogden’s sourcebook, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, p. 266.

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Aethelred the Unready

The Freelance History Writer

Image of Aethelred the Unready A thirteenth century chronicler recorded Aethelred as being named “Un-raed” which has come to mean Unready in modern terms. The name Aethelred is a compound of two words: Aethel meaning “prince” and raed meaning “noble counsel”. Un-raed means “no counsel” so the chronicler was basically making a pun on Aethelred’s name. But this pun had overtones and alternative meanings including “evil counsel” or “a treacherous plot”. Calling Aethelred “Unraed” could mean he was given bad counsel, he did not take advice from his counselors or that he himself was unwise. Perhaps all were true. Let’s look at the story and see.

Aethelred was the great-great grandson of Alfred the Great and born c. 968. His father was Edgar the Peaceable, King of England and his mother was Queen Aelfthryth. Edgar died in 975 leaving a young Aethelred and an elder son by a previous…

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Spontaneous Generation: Then & Now

Aristotle: Spontaneous Generation
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Recently, in an attempt to debunk the theory of evolution a naysayer noted to me the absurdity of logs turning into alligators. Agreed! However, that assertion lead to the conclusion that life must have originated only by Creation. The logic stems from a (mis)understanding of Aristotle’s theory of spontaneous generation. Having studied Classics in university I hadn’t come across Aristotle claiming that this theory applied to any organism more complicated than testacea, insects, certain fish and plants. Consequently, I’ve been poring over the literature about this theory and I’ve come to the realization that it is far more complicated than I remembered!

The premise of the theory is the idea that life could rise from a nonliving source; it was referred to as generatio spontanea (Latin) or to apo tautaomatou (Greek, “things generated by spontaneity”) or spontaneous generation, in which “spontaneous” is used in the context of “growing naturally, without being planted, as in the Latin roote sponte, “of its own” (the Greek equivalent being automaton).[1] For the most part, ancient Greeks, including Aristotle, held that most animals were created without parents of their own kind. Thus, Aristotle tackled the question of how species could consistently be created spontaneously, in which it develops from matter (mud, dirt, or putrefied material) that is in no way similar to the created organism.[2] Yet, even though he was a proponent of the theory, it was inconsistence with his metaphysical doctrines of causation and chance. However, the theory is antiquated and was scientifically disproved by the 19th Century French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, and the general consensus is that this theory is obsolete.

Yet Aristotle was not the only Greek philosopher to uphold and expand upon this theory. Pre-Aristotelian philosophers who held similar theories include Anaximander (believed everything arose out of the elemental nature of the universe: the “apeiron” or “unbounded”); Anaximenes (speculated there was a primordial terrestrial slime, a mixture of earth and water, which when combined with the sun’s heat formed plants, animals and humans); Xenophanes (traced human origins to the transition period between the fluid stage of earth and the formation of land and held that spontaneous generation was influenced by the sun); Empedocles accepted the theory  but held that there had to be trials of combinations of parts of animals that arose); Anaxagoras (adopted the terrestrial slime account, but he believed that the seeds of plants existed in the air from the beginning, and of animals in the aether (a material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere).

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Even though the theories of these philosophers are discounted are not considered viable, they are not completely far off from accepted theories today about the origins of life. Abiogenesis is “the natural process by which life arose from non-living matter such as simple organic compounds.” Also, Aristotle did not argue that putrefaction was not the source of life, but the byproduct of the action of the “sweet” element water. Also, there is of course modern day theories the chemical reactions occurring in aerosol droplets where small molecules combine into larger ones  and “could have nurtured the earliest building blocks of life” (Inside Science). Or perhaps it was the ever-changing atmospheric conditions of life or around those volcanic vents at the bottom of the ocean or… and so forth (Universe Today).

So, in effect, Aristotle’s theory that living organisms such as testacea, insects, certain fish and plants could have developed from non-living matter (containing pneuma, or “vital heat”), combined with the sun’s pneuma (“vital heat”) is actually somewhat close to current theories about the origin of life.

Moral of the story? If we look carefully at different theories around specific questions, we can see that even though the surface of the theories seem to be completely contrasted the foundations might be quite close. So let’s not automatically assume that a theory holds no merit based on one (incorrect in this case) assumption about it and recognize that it’s important to respect and to keep an open mind about and other peoples’ ideas and opinions. Cool?

Life Map.

[1-2]. Jan Klein, Norman Klein, Solitude of a Humble Genius (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heildeberg, 2013), 29-30.
[3] S.M. Connel, “Aristotle and Galen on Sex Difference and Reproduction”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 33, Issue 3, pp. 417.

Image credits:
Aristotle: Associate’s Mind
Origin of Life: NASA

 

The Impermanence of Archetypes

In today’s society we are exposed to countless religions, faiths, opinions and everything in between. Not-so-surprisingly, this is not much different than the early Christians in Rome (pre-Byzantine); in fact, the iconography and practices of the early Christians were very similar to their Jewish roots and their pagan neighbours. Many Christians closely identified themselves with certain Jewish practices and/or doctrines, so much so that the very definitions of early Christianity and Judaism are problematic. [1]

Screen Shot 2014-03-05 at 1.31.53 PMFragmentary gold glass disc from the Catacomb of San Marcellino e Pietro. Rome, ca. 4th Century CE

Exemplifying the iconographic transience between Christian and Jewish iconography is a gold glass fragment found in the Catacomb of San Marcellino e Pietro (these types of fragments are common to the loculi of tombs) [2]. The fragment appears to depict a flaming Menorah before a tomb or shrine, to the right of which are palm trees [3]. Images such as these are prevalent in the polytheistic societies of ancient Greece, Rome and the Near East; however, this is much more Jewish in iconography. The inscription, written in Greek, writes “House of Peace. Accept a blessing…with all yours.” [4] This is a common Christian formula; to add to the mix, the images of palm trees and Menorahs were acceptable images linked to the emergence of Christianity in its own right and as well, Temple and palm tree motifs are very prominent iconography in Jewish art and architecture (such as the Bar Kokhba coins and the engraved palm trees on the olive-wood doors to the Inner Sanctuary of the First Temple, cf. 1 Kgs 6:32). However, the central structure does not parallel the Temple façade as it is depicted in contemporary coins, which makes this fragment’s images to be inconsistent with typical Jewish motifs and iconography of the time. In that regard, the imagery does not follow archetypal imagery of the Temple, central to the Jewish faith. If so, we could be witnessing the formation of early Christian iconography, which focuses more on the spiritual afterlife, rather than remembering and celebrating the First Temple.

The palm tree represents the righteous man and it was the emblem of Judea after the Exodus. Sumerian tradition holds it to be the Tree of Life and the emblem of the Phoenician deity, Baal-Tamar, the Lord of the Palm, and of Astarte and the Assyro-Babylonian Ishtar. The flames may suggest the Maccabean revolt and would therefore be far more poignant for Jews than Christians. Furthermore, other glass objects have been uncovered that depict the saints themselves, leaving no question regarding whether or not these are Christian artefacts. In addition, the Menorah is a candle, which symbolizes the darkness of life and at death the it illuminates the darkness and represents the light in the world to come.

The imagery of palm trees was very vivid in the descriptions of the Temple of Solomon but also signify glory, triumph, and resurrection (very Christian themes). If the fragment belongs to a Christian, it would nicely bring together Christianity’s Jewish heritage while at the same time emphasizing the sovereignty of Christ as their saviour.

Interestingly, then, it appears that early Christians did not see their tradition as much different from that of their neighbours and likely continued to practice Jewish customs and held similar beliefs as the Jews, the only fundamental difference being that they saw their way to enter paradise (represented by the palm trees) in the afterlife was through Christ. Therefore, until at least the end of the Third Century CE there was either reluctance or no need for Christians to create a new iconography and differentiate themselves from contemporary Jews and pagans.

However, the question remains: did this glass fragment belong to a Jewish individual and not necessarily indicative of the fluidity of emerging Christian iconography? Even though the answer will likely remain unanswered it is intriguing and eye-opening to recognize how closely early Christians identified themselves with their neighbours and fellow non-Christians, at least iconographically. It appears, then, that certain archetypes of Jewish art (such as the Temple and palm trees) served the early Christians as a distinct visual language that presents the theology of their faith.

Citations

1. Mary Beard et al. Religions of Rome: A Sourcebook, vol. 2 (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1998),340.
2. Vincenzo Fiocchi Nicolai et al. The Christian Catacombs of Rome: History, Decoration, Inscriptions (Regensburg: Verlag Schnell & Steiner GmbH, 1999), 20: (loculi are tombs large and closed off with marble slabs or tiles aligned along walls and alternate with wide segments of tufa.
3. Jaś Elsner, “Archaeologies and Agendas: Reflections on Late Ancient Jewish Art and Early Christian Art,” Journal of Roman Studies 93 (2003): 114.
4. Ibid.

O, Daughters of Jerusalem

A Liberal Education

“Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.” (Luke 23:28v) – taken from Paulo Coelho’s latest book, Manuscript Found in Accra.
“Art is like the sun and the sea and the wind, is one and the same all over this earth, in spite of boundaries, nations and wars.” – from Kahlil Gibran’s The Prophet.

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I wanted to open this post today with quotes from two of my most favourite and most widely read authors of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries: Kahlil Gibran & Paulo Coelho. They come from completely different backgrounds (Gibran, Lebanese, immigrating to New York in 1895, 52 years before Coelho, Brazilian, was even born). Yet, in a sense, these two authors are almost kindred spirits. Their writings are poetical prose, exploring the depths of the human psyche. I say psyche twofold: it refers to the totality of…

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The Development of Writing: A Not-so-Linear Path

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Image: 2″ x 3″ tablet discovered during the 2011 excavation season in Iklaina, Greece (Messenia region), led by Dr. Michael Cosmopolous of the University of Missouri-St. Louis. (Photo: Iklaina.org, taken by Christian Mundigler.)

From the Paleolithic cave paintings in France (Pech-Merle; Lascaux), the famous hieroglyphs of Egypt, up until modern-day languages and writing systems, the profundity of  the development and evolution of the written language (and the fact of writing itself) is often overlooked. Until, that is, something amazing is found, such as this Mycenaean clay tablet, perhaps 3,500 years old. The significance of this discovery cannot be over-stated: it is the oldest inscription to ever have been found (thus far) in European and Greek soil. It is a clay plate written in a script known as Linear B.

According to To Vima (TO BHMA), a Greek daily newspaper, it has the potential to change much of the data and knowledge regarding the use of Linear B and the spread of writing. It is a syllabic script that was used for Mycenaean Greek (16th to 12th centuries BCE). It is generally thought that the application of this script was for administrative purposes and there are more than five thousand documents (mostly clay tablets) that contain this script (1).

According to the 2011 report, the focus was on the Cyclopean Terrace and Building X. South of the Terrace painted sherds were uncovered, along with animal bones (mostly of pigs and sheep/goats). To the north of the Terrace were two deposits, the upper one containing pottery. I don’t know where exactly the tablet was found (alas), which I speculate would shed light on what the tablet was recording, but my guess is that it could have accounted for the livestock, being that the finds appear to have consisted mostly of various types of pottery in addition to the remains of animal bones.

When we look at ancient scripts such as Linear B, we are looking at the early foundations of writing. What is interesting (to me), is that if this script was indeed only used in administrative contexts, not reflecting the spoken language, it shows that at this time (correct me if wrong!) there were two parallel languages: the written language and the spoken language. Fascinatingly, the two gradually merged and perhaps that is why scripts such as Linear B fell out of use.

Sources:
(1) Anne-Marie Christin (ed.), A History of Writing (Paris: Flammarion, 2002), 200.
For a summary of information on Mycenaeans, click here

The Ancient Gnomon

In the Odyssey, Homer wrote (Od.1.25-28):

Poseidon had gone to visit the Ethiopians worlds away,
Ethiopians off at the farthest limits of mankind,
A people split in two, one part where the Sungod sets
And part where the Sungod rises.

This passage describes the general progress of the Sun’s advancement throughout the day. This passage is significant because it shows us that even long before myths were being written down (c. eighth or seventh centuries BCE for Homer), geographical routes and astronomical information were being transmitted via oral tradition. It seems as though the ancient Greeks “named the directions of summer and winter Sunrise or Sunset, as distinct from the east and west directions in the spring and autumn seasons of equal days and nights” (1). Using the sun was key to determining geographical and chronological information in the Ancients’ daily lives and in travel.

ancient sundial

Above is an ancient Egyptian sundial (c. 13th century BCE). The fact that this 19th Dynasty sundial pre-dates Homer demonstrates the advancement of technologies in determining time. Dating to the 19th dynasty, this particular sundial was found on the floor of a workman’s hut, in the Valley of the Kings, where the pharaohs and nobles were buried during Egypt’s New Kingdom period (around 1550 B.C. to 1070 B.C.).

Eratosthenes map 194bce

The world as known and documented by Erastothenes (276-195 BCE). Besides being most famously known as a Greek mathemetician, he was also a well-known historian, astronomer and geographer. He is considered to be the first person “to reduce the problem of terrestrial position-finding to a regular system,” which he based upon the gnomon (2).

Anaximander (610-546 BCE, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia) is credited with introducing this Babylonian instrument to the Greeks. The gnomon (γνώμων, literally “one that knows or examines”) is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow and is used for a variety of purposes in mathematics and other fields. In the fourth century BCE, Pytheas of Massalia gave much attention to the measurement of latitude by way of the gnomon (3). The “bisection of the angle between two shadows of equal length was sufficient to establish a precise meridian line, and so to divide the compass or horizon circle” (4). With the use of the gnomon, and the knowledge that the shape of the earth is spherical and “that the Sun’s annual path across the concave” is at an inclination, the ancients could then compare latitudes of places by lengths of the midday shadows of the gnomon (5).

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Link to map of Erastothenes here
Link to image of gnomon here

Sources
1. E.G.R. Taylor, The Haven-Finding Art: A History of Navigation from Odysseus to Captain Cook (London: Hollis & Carter, 1956), 10.
2. Charles H. Cotter, A History of Nautical Astronomy (Toronto: Hollis & Carter, 1968), 12.
3. Ibid., 19.
4. Taylor, Haven-Finding, 44.
5. Cotter, History, 128.

Rites and Swallows

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In honour of the arrival of summer, I’m dedicating this post to a little bird I now pass by whenever I walk through Nathan Philips Square in Toronto: the swallow. We know these birds for their cuteness and their uncanny ability to show up out of nowhere when eating something that could have crumbs. More relevantly (for this post), these birds did not go unnoticed by the ancient Minoans in Greece either.

Pictured above is the “Spring Fresco” in Room 2 (the “Room of the Lilies”) of Building Delta at Akrotiri, Thera (modern-day Santorini, Greece). Thera is one of the very few almost intact Aegean Bronze Age wall paintings found in situ (1). In her article, “A Flight of Swallows,” Karen Foster calls for a reinterpretation of the swallows painted on these walls, a reinterpretation that will shed new light on the room “as a cultic space in which iconography and architecture combined to create a dramatic setting for epiphanic ritual.”(2). She claims that instead of interpreting the image as peaceful and almost fun-loving, the imagery is almost bacchic, arguing the birds exhibit “classic signs of…high-intensity display, of which is possession of airborne feathers for use in nests”(3).

Foster’s is a poignant article because she demonstrates that we risk losing sight of the fact that these motifs might actually represent a very different element of Minoan religion that we do not comprehend. The swallow is an indigenous Theran motif from the Middle Cycladic period appears to have influenced the wall paintings of Late Cycladic I paintings, such as the “Spring Fresco” from Delta 2 (4).

The advent of modernity led to the creation of two fundamentally different ontological zones: that of human beings on the one hand and of non-humans on the other (1). Rapid, far-reaching innovations in technology have created a wide divide between living beings (humans, animals) and non-living beings (material objects). Consequently, we no longer see animism in a rock or in the personality of a teddy bear. Representations of swallows are prominent throughout Akrotiri in frescoes found in rooms Delta 2, Xeste 3:4, Beta 6, Arvaniti 1 and West House 5. Pottery with swallow representations are found at the West House, Xeste 3 upper story, Arvaniti 2, Delta 9:1, Arvaniti 1 or 3, Bronou 2 upper room, Arvaniti 2:2, House of Ladies 1, repository 3 and West House 6 (5). Is this because swallows were simply easy and/or beautiful to paint or do they represent or play a part in a ritual that is part of Minoan religion as a whole?

Sources
1. Mary B. Hollinshead, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 93, no. 3 (Jul., 1989): 339. Online version is here. 2. Karen Polinger Foster, “A Flight of Swallows,” American Journal of Archaeology 99 (1995): 409. 3. Ibid. 4. Heather Mae Russell, “Sacred or Profane: Swallow-Painted Nippled Ewers from Akrotiri” in SOMA 2004: Symposium on the Mediterranean Archaeology: Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of Postgraduate Researchers, School of Classics, Trinity College Dublin. 20 – 22 February 2004, ed. Jo Day et al. (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2006), 149, quoting from M. Mathari. 5. Foster, “A Flight of Swallows,” 424-5.

Link to image here

Digging Deep…

Verifying the Historicity of the Bible

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In recent years, some doubt has emerged as to whether or not the Temple of Solomon existed at all. After the destruction of the Temple the ancient Israelites were left with little else but a memory of the Temple. Today, we are left with the insurmountable task of attempting to discover it, but without wreaking havoc upon the Temple Mount. There are several ways of going about to argue for its existence: some methods include archaeological discoveries around the Temple Mount and the city of Jerusalem, as well as comparing biblical descriptions of the Temple to contemporary Iron Age temples that have been excavated. Even though archaeologists such as Eliat Mazar have claimed to have discovered a section of a city wall dating around the tenth century BCE in Jerusalem (February 2010), which could plausibly have been built by King Solomon. There is a strong case for this to be true (large stone masonry, as well as the pottery found at the site dating from around the tenth century BCE). However, in the fervour that followed, time was not taken to analyze the finds before going to press. These finds may or may not prove to be significant.

Fortunately, we are not bound to the confines of determining its existence based on the chance of discovering tenth century structures around the Ophel area (Jerusalem’s Old City). We can expand our searches beyond Jerusalem by comparing the biblical descriptions of the Temple with contemporary Iron Age temples at ‘Ain Dara’, Tell Ta’yinat and Arad. In sum, these Iron Age are Syro-Phoenician and the Phoenicians were the master masons during this time. All three structures are tripartite langraum (“long-room”) temples. According to 1 Kings: 6-7 and Ezekiel 40-42 the Temple was of a similar structure. Similar building materials were also used; the hekal (vestibule) was paneled with cedar wood and the floor of cypress (1 Kgs 6:15). In Biblical times, cedar trees from Lebanon were extremely valued and would have been imported to Jerusalem from Lebanon (1 Kgs 6). Interestingly, the May 21 online version of Biblical Archaeological Society notes that the wooden beams excavated from Herod’s Jerusalem Temple (c. 70 CE) could have been re-used (“secondary use” in archaeological terms) from the Temple of Solomon. Perhaps, then, this type of discovery can be used to validate not only Eliat Mazar’s claim to have uncovered some remnants of the Temple, but it also validates the argument to incorporate textual analysis of the Biblical texts with contemporary Syro-Phoenician temples.

Images: Temple Mount, ‘Ain Dara’.
For more information about Tell Ta’yinat, visit Tayinat Archaeological Project.

This post is based on research I conducted for my thesis, Writing and Remembering: Descriptions of the Temple of Solomon at the University of Toronto.